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Manual of fumigation for insect control fao

manual of fumigation for insect control fao

Apple fruit cuticles and the occurrence of pores and transcuticular canals.
General Fumigation, general Fumigation is a term used in the food industry to describe treating a space where food commodities are found (as opposed to the term Structural Fumigation used to describe treatments that target wood destroying insects such as termites found in wood members.
Studies are needed to evaluate the potential for effective control of major quarantine insects under such atmospheres, alone and in combination.Methyl Bromide Fumigation of 'Rainier' Sweet Cherries in Corrugated Polypropylene Containers.The controls were 100 g of untreated cherries.These variables were not significantly different between those of inserts and of bulk bins (.00, df3, P ns ).Fruit and stems were rated individually on a scale of 1 to 3 (1best; 3poorest).Results and Discussion, sorption, fruit temperatures were near, but below 6C during the fumigation of the different containers (Table 1).Acids were titrated to.2 with.1 N NaOH and expressed as percentage of malic acid.A significant difference in cuticle thickness in areas with and without brood war no cd patch 1.12 Codling moth eggs was only observed in peaches.Abstract, since sweet cherries are sensitive to mechanical injury, a postharvest process that reduces handling, such as fruit fumigation in field containers, would conserve product quality.The potential for low oxygen and / or elevated carbon dioxide appears quite promising particularly against the egg stage.
Each lower corner was perforated with.9 mm diameter opening.
Very few countries have approved ionizing radiation disinfestation treatment for fruit, and no fruit is yet being so treated commercially (Wills., 1989).
Most insects are sterilized at doses.05.2 kilogray; some adult moths will survive 1 kilogray, but their progeny are sterile (Wills., 1989).
Exposure to low temperatures and oxygen, such as those commonly used for storage of apple and pears, is also a possible alternative to fumigation treatment for codling moth eggs and larvae.
Residues Organic methyl bromide residues declined rapidly after 6 hrs posttreatment from a high.5 ppm to 1 ppb or less within 3 days posttreatment with two replications and to less than 1 ppb within 5 days with the third replication (Table 4).Manual of fumigation for insect control.Since fumigants are true gases, individual gas molecules can penetrate into and back out of materials being treated as well as into cracks and crevices or other difficult to reach pest harborage areas that may be found in the treatment site.(1981) reported that fumigation with MB provided complete control of Codling moth eggs on cherries at a mean temperature.2 to 24C.Proper gas monitoring during the treatment is very important so that effective concentrations are maintained throughout the entire grain mass over the duration of the required treatment time.Data Analysis, nonparametric two-sample tests were done by using proc GLM on ranked data, which is the equivalent to a Wilcoxon rank sum test using the t approximation for significance (SAS Institute, 1982).Temperatures during fumigation were monitored using a Campbell data logger equipped with thermocouples.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Evaluation of a methyl bromide quarantine treatment to control codling moth on nectarine cultivars proposed for export to Japan.SAS user's guide: statistics.Because of phytotoxicity and health and safety concerns, alternatives to fumigation also have been investigated.Hunter color assessment was similar to the visual assessment of the fruit.There are strict requirements for temperature monitoring in cold storage facilities in order to certify compliance with the required cold treatments.Inorganic bromide residues after fumigations were.5.3 ppm, and these are within the range previously found for other similarly treated cherry cultivars (Moffitt., 1983; Singh., 1976) and below the 20 ppm EPA tolerance (EPA, 1969).